Judgment Day

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Scripture

Heb 4:13 No creature is concealed from him, but everything is naked and exposed to the eyes of him to whom we must render an account.
Rev 20:11-15 Then I saw a great white throne and him who was seated on it. From his presence earth and sky fled away, and no place was found for them. And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Then another book was opened, which is the book of life. And the dead were judged by what was written in the books, according to what they had done. And the sea gave up the dead who were in it, Death and Hades gave up the dead who were in them, and they were judged, each one of them, according to what they had done. Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire. And if anyone's name was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire.

Catechism

... to judge the living and the dead

#678

Following in the steps of the prophets and John the Baptist, Jesus announced the judgment of the Last Day in his preaching.[1] Then will the conduct of each one and the secrets of hearts be brought to light.[2] Then will the culpable unbelief that counted the offer of God's grace as nothing be condemned.[3] Our attitude to our neighbor will disclose acceptance or refusal of grace and divine love.[4] On the Last Day Jesus will say: "Truly I say to you, as you did it to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it to me."[5]

#679

Christ is Lord of eternal life. Full right to pass definitive judgment on the works and hearts of men belongs to him as redeemer of the world. He "acquired" this right by his cross. The Father has given "all judgment to the Son".[6] Yet the Son did not come to judge, but to save and to give the life he has in himself.[7] By rejecting grace in this life, one already judges oneself, receives according to one's works, and can even condemn oneself for all eternity by rejecting the Spirit of love.[8]

In Brief

#680

Christ the Lord already reigns through the Church, but all the things of this world are not yet subjected to him. The triumph of Christ's kingdom will not come about without one last assault by the powers of evil.

#681

On Judgment Day at the end of the world, Christ will come in glory to achieve the definitive triumph of good over evil which, like the wheat and the tares, have grown up together in the course of history.

#682

When he comes at the end of time to judge the living and the dead, the glorious Christ will reveal the secret disposition of hearts and will render to each man according to his works, and according to his acceptance or refusal of grace.

The Particular Judgment

Catechism

#1021
Death puts an end to human life as the time open to either accepting or rejecting the divine grace manifested in Christ.[9] The New Testament speaks of judgment primarily in its aspect of the final encounter with Christ in his second coming, but also repeatedly affirms that each will be rewarded immediately after death in accordance with his works and faith. The parable of the poor man Lazarus and the words of Christ on the cross to the good thief, as well as other New Testament texts speak of a final destiny of the soul--a destiny which can be different for some and for others.[10]
Lk 16:22-23 When the poor man died, he was carried away by angels to the bosom of Abraham. The rich man also died and was buried, and from the netherworld, where he was in torment, he raised his eyes and saw Abraham far off and Lazarus at his side.
Lk 23:43 He replied to him, “Amen, I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise.”
Mt 16:26 What profit would there be for one to gain the whole world and forfeit his life? Or what can one give in exchange for his life?
2 Cor 5:8 Yet we are courageous, and we would rather leave the body and go home to the Lord
Phil 1:23 I am caught between the two. I long to depart this life and be with Christ, [for] that is far better.
Heb 9:27-28 Just as it is appointed that human beings die once, and after this the judgment, so also Christ, offered once to take away the sins of many, will appear a second time, not to take away sin but to bring salvation to those who eagerly await him.
Heb 12:22-24 No, you have approached Mount Zion and the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and countless angels in festal gathering, and the assembly of the firstborn enrolled in heaven, and God the judge of all, and the spirits of the just made perfect, and Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant, and the sprinkled blood that speaks more eloquently than that of Abel.
#1022
Each man receives his eternal retribution in his immortal soul at the very moment of his death, in a particular judgment that refers his life to Christ: either entrance into the blessedness of heaven--through a purification[11] or immediately,[12]--or immediate and everlasting damnation.[13]
At the evening of life, we shall be judged on our love.[14]

References

  1. Cf. Dan 7:10; Joel 3-4; Mal 3:19; Mt 3:7-12.
  2. Cf Mk 12:38-40; Lk 12:1-3; Jn 3:20-21; Rom 2:16; 1 Cor 4:5.
  3. Cf. Mt 11:20-24; 12:41-42.
  4. Cf. Mt 5:22; 7:1-5.
  5. Mt 25:40.
  6. Jn 5:22; cf. 5:27; Mt 25:31; Acts 10:42; 17:31; 2 Tim 4:1.
  7. Cf. Lk 21:12; Jn 15:19-20.
  8. Cf. Jn 3:18; 12:48; Mt 12:32; 1 Cor 3:12-15; Heb 6:4-6; 10:26-31.
  9. Cf. 2 Tim 1:9-10: "He saved us and called us to a holy life, not according to our works but according to his own design and the grace bestowed on us in Christ Jesus before time began, but now made manifest through the appearance of our savior Christ Jesus, who destroyed death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel."
  10. Cf. Lk 16:22; 23:43; Mt 16:26; 2 Cor 5:8; Phil 1:23; Heb 9:27; 12:23.
  11. Cf. Council of Lyons II (1274): DS 857-858; Council of Florence (1439): DS 1304-1306; Council of Trent (1563): DS 1820.
  12. Cf. Benedict XII, Benedictus Deus (1336):DS 1000-1001; John XXII, Ne super his (1334):DS 990.
  13. Cf. Benedict XII, Benedictus Deus (1336):DS 1002.
  14. St. John of the Cross, Dichos 64.

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