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Some very random and preliminary associations about the word "rock" in the Bible.

I think we should remember the OT associations when thinking about Peter, the Rock.

Jesus transformed the old Kingdom of Israel from a geo-political reality into a set of spiritual relationships. He builds on an entirely new kind of rock--first Peter, then the apostles, then "living stones."

Old Testament

"Rock" = sela
crag, cliff, rock, mountain
hiding places
foundation of fortresses
water from the rock
honey from the rock
Bees apparently do nest in the rock faces of cliffs in the Holy Land.
where birds nest
mountains, high places
foundation of the Temple
stone rejected by the builders
NAB, Psalm 118:22, footnote: "The stone the builders rejected: a proverb: what is insignificant to human beings has become great through divine election. The 'stone' may originally have meant the foundation stone or capstone of the Temple. The New Testament interpreted the verse as referring to the death and resurrection of Christ (Mt 21:42; Acts 4:11; cf. Is 28:16 and Rom 9:33; 1 Pt 2:7)."

New Testament

"You are Rock."
Petros--Greek translation of "Cephas."
Peter--English transliteration of "Petros." We have kept the sound of the word, but not its meaning, and so the pun is lost on us. If we had imitated the action of Matthew, we would call Simon "Rock." Instead, we have kept the letters and given up the meaning.
Jesus is the stone rejected by the builders
Mt 21:42; Acts 4:11; cf. Is 28:16 and Rom 9:33; [ 1 Pt 2:7."
In these passages, the Hebrew word is eben rather than
apostles as foundation of the New Jerusalem
"living stones"