Parousia

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Parousia is from a Greek word that means presence, coming, advent, arrival. It is synonymous with the second coming of Jesus in glory "to judge the living and the dead" (Nicene Creed).

παρουσία is from πάρειμι, "to be with."

New Testament

Mt 24:3-7

3 As he was sitting on the Mount of Olives, the disciples approached him privately and said, “Tell us, when will this happen, and what sign will there be of your coming, and of the end of the age?”

4 Jesus said to them in reply, “See that no one deceives you.

5 For many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am the Messiah,’ and they will deceive many.

6 You will hear of wars and reports of wars; see that you are not alarmed, for these things must happen, but it will not yet be the end.

7 Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom; there will be famines and earthquakes from place to place.

Mt 24:27
For just as lightning comes from the east and is seen as far as the west, so will the coming of the Son of Man be.
Mt 24:37-39

37 For as it was in the days of Noah, so it will be at the coming of the Son of Man.

38 In [those] days before the flood, they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, up to the day that Noah entered the ark.

39 They did not know until the flood came and carried them all away. So will it be [also] at the coming of the Son of Man.

1 Cor 15:23
... each one in proper order: Christ the firstfruits; then, at his coming, those who belong to Christ;
1 Cor 16:17
I rejoice in the arrival of Stephanas, Fortunatus, and Achaicus, because they made up for your absence,
2 Cor 7:6-7

6 But God, who encourages the downcast, encouraged us by the arrival of Titus,

7 and not only by his arrival but also by the encouragement with which he was encouraged in regard to you, as he told us of your yearning, your lament, your zeal for me, so that I rejoiced even more.

2 Cor 10:10
For someone will say, “His letters are severe and forceful, but his bodily presence is weak, and his speech contemptible.”
Phil 1:26
... so that your boasting in Christ Jesus may abound on account of me when I come to you again.
Phil 2:12
So then, my beloved, obedient as you have always been, not only when I am present but all the more now when I am absent, work out your salvation with fear and trembling.
1 Th 2:19
For what is our hope or joy or crown to boast of in the presence [?µp??s?e?] of our Lord Jesus at his coming if not you yourselves?
1 Th 3:13
... so as to strengthen your hearts, to be blameless in holiness before our God and Father at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all his holy ones.
1 Th 4:15
Indeed, we tell you this, on the word of the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, will surely not precede those who have fallen asleep.
1 Th 5:23
May the God of peace himself make you perfectly holy and may you entirely, spirit, soul, and body, be preserved blameless for the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
2 Th 2:1
We ask you, brothers, with regard to the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our assembling with him
2 Th 2:8-9

8 And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord [Jesus] will kill with the breath of his mouth and render powerless by the manifestation of his coming,

9 the one whose coming springs from the power of Satan in every mighty deed and in signs and wonders that lie, ...

James 5:7-8

7 Be patient, therefore, brothers, until the coming of the Lord. See how the farmer waits for the precious fruit of the earth, being patient with it until it receives the early and the late rains.

8 You too must be patient. Make your hearts firm, because the coming of the Lord is at hand.

2 Pet 1:16
We did not follow cleverly devised myths when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we had been eyewitnesses of his majesty.
2 Pet 3:4

3 Know this first of all, that in the last days scoffers will come [to] scoff, living according to their own desires

4 and saying, “Where is the promise of his coming? From the time when our ancestors fell asleep, everything has remained as it was from the beginning of creation.”

2 Pet 3:12

11 Since everything is to be dissolved in this way, what sort of persons ought [you] to be, conducting yourselves in holiness and devotion,

12 waiting for and hastening the coming of the day of God, because of which the heavens will be dissolved in flames and the elements melted by fire.

1 Jn 2:28
And now, children, remain in him, so that when he appears we may have confidence and not be put to shame by him at his coming.

The dogma

From the Nicene Creed in 325 AD:

"He will come [Latin, "advent"] in glory to judge the living and the dead."

All Nicene Christians, and therefore all Catholics, are Adventists.

Article 7 of the Catechism of the Catholic Church is devoted to this part of the creed: "From Thence He Will Come Again to Judge the Living and the Dead"

Christ already reigns through the Church. . .

#668
"Christ died and lived again, that he might be Lord both of the dead and of the living."[1] Christ's Ascension into heaven signifies his participation, in his humanity, in God's power and authority. Jesus Christ is Lord: he possesses all power in heaven and on earth. He is "far above all rule and authority and power and dominion", for the Father "has put all things under his feet."[2] Christ is Lord of the cosmos and of history. In him human history and indeed all creation are "set forth" and transcendently fulfilled.[3]
#669
As Lord, Christ is also head of the Church, which is his Body.[4] Taken up to heaven and glorified after he had thus fully accomplished his mission, Christ dwells on earth in his Church. The redemption is the source of the authority that Christ, by virtue of the Holy Spirit, exercises over the Church. "The kingdom of Christ [is] already present in mystery", "on earth, the seed and the beginning of the kingdom".[5]
#670
Since the Ascension God's plan has entered into its fulfillment. We are already at "the last hour".[6] "Already the final age of the world is with us, and the renewal of the world is irrevocably under way; it is even now anticipated in a certain real way, for the Church on earth is endowed already with a sanctity that is real but imperfect."[7] Christ's kingdom already manifests its presence through the miraculous signs that attend its proclamation by the Church.[8]

. . .until all things are subjected to him

#671
Though already present in his Church, Christ's reign is nevertheless yet to be fulfilled "with power and great glory" by the King's return to earth.[9] This reign is still under attack by the evil powers, even though they have been defeated definitively by Christ's Passover.[10] Until everything is subject to him, "until there be realized new heavens and a new earth in which justice dwells, the pilgrim Church, in her sacraments and institutions, which belong to this present age, carries the mark of this world which will pass, and she herself takes her place among the creatures which groan and travail yet and await the revelation of the sons of God."[11] That is why Christians pray, above all in the Eucharist, to hasten Christ's return by saying to him:[12] Marana tha! "Our Lord, come!"[13]
#672
Before his Ascension Christ affirmed that the hour had not yet come for the glorious establishment of the messianic kingdom awaited by Israel[14] which, according to the prophets, was to bring all men the definitive order of justice, love and peace.[15] According to the Lord, the present time is the time of the Spirit and of witness, but also a time still marked by "distress" and the trial of evil which does not spare the Church[16] and ushers in the struggles of the last days. It is a time of waiting and watching.[17]

The glorious advent of Christ, the hope of Israel

#673
Since the Ascension Christ's coming in glory has been imminent,[18] even though "it is not for you to know times or seasons which the Father has fixed by his own authority."[19] This eschatological coming could be accomplished at any moment, even if both it and the final trial that will precede it are "delayed".[20]
#674
The glorious Messiah's coming is suspended at every moment of history until his recognition by "all Israel", for "a hardening has come upon part of Israel" in their "unbelief" toward Jesus.[21] St. Peter says to the Jews of Jerusalem after Pentecost: "Repent therefore, and turn again, that your sins may be blotted out, that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord, and that he may send the Christ appointed for you, Jesus, whom heaven must receive until the time for establishing all that God spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets from of old."[22] St. Paul echoes him: "For if their rejection means the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance mean but life from the dead?"[23] The "full inclusion" of the Jews in the Messiah's salvation, in the wake of "the full number of the Gentiles",[24] will enable the People of God to achieve "the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ", in which "God may be all in all."[25]

References

  1. Rom 14:9.
  2. Eph 1:20-22.
  3. Eph 1:10; cf. 4:10; 1 Cor 15:24,27-28.
  4. Cf. Eph 1:22.
  5. LG 3; 5; cf. Eph 4:11-13.
  6. 1 Jn 2:18; cf. 1 Pet 4:7.
  7. LG 48 § 3; cf. 1 Cor 10:11.
  8. Cf. Mk 16:17-18, 20.
  9. Lk 21:27; cf. Mt 25:31.
  10. Cf. 2 Thess 2:7.
  11. LG 48 § 3; cf. 2 Pet 3:13; Rom 8:19-22; 1 Cor 15:28.
  12. Cf. 1 Cor 11:26; 2 Pet 3:11-12.
  13. 1 Cor 16:22; Rev 22:17,20.
  14. Cf. Acts 1:6-7.
  15. Cf. Isa 11:1-9.
  16. Cf. Acts 1:8; 1 Cor 7:26; Eph 5:16; 1 Pet 4:17.
  17. Cf. Mt 25:1, 13; Mk 13:33-37; 1 Jn 2:18; 4:3; Tim 4:1.
  18. Cf. Rev 22:20.
  19. Acts 1:7; cf. Mk 13:32.
  20. Cf. Mt 24:44; Thess 5:2; Thess 2:3-12.
  21. Rom 11:20-26; cf. Mt 23:39.
  22. Acts 3:19-21.
  23. Rom 11:15.
  24. Rom 11:12, 25; cf. Lk 21:24.
  25. Eph 4:13; 1 Cor 15:28.

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