Chronology of Heresies
In arguing with heretics, it is important to recognize and honor that part of the Tradition which they preserve while describing the part they reject with "clarity and charity" (motto of The Station of the Cross Catholic Radio).
In today's jargon, heresies are "memes" that circulate in our culture. Like genes, memes mutate and combine with other memes to produce new variants of the old heresies.
I have used "15 Major Heresies and Those Who Fought Them" as a springboard for the development of the table below.
|Pelagianism||400-418||Pelagius||St. Augustine||Pelagius "denied original sin as well as Christian grace. ... [He] regarded the moral strength of man's will (liberum arbitrium), when steeled by asceticism, as sufficient in itself to desire and to attain the loftiest ideal of virtue. The value of Christ's redemption was, in his opinion, limited mainly to instruction (doctrina) and example (exemplum), which the Saviour threw into the balance as a counterweight against Adam's wicked example, so that nature retains the ability to conquer sin and to gain eternal life even without the aid of grace."|
|Semipelagianism||428-529||French monks.||Council of Orange, 529||The essence of Semipelagianism is:
|Gnosticism||80-450||Legion.||St. Irenaeus, d. 202)||Irenaeus wrote Adversus Haereses around 180 vs. Valentinus. The Gnostics claimed to have secret revelations. The word "gnosis" means "knowledge." Knowledge of the secret mysteries required initiation into the sect.|
|Arianism||320-336||Arius||St. Athanasius||The Son of God is the "firstborn of all creation," and therefore is a god to us mere mortals, but is not God compared to God the Father. The Nicene Creed was composed in 325 AD to counter Arianism.|
|Nestorianism||Nestorius||St. Cyril of Alexandria|
|Monotheletism||St. Maximus the Confessor|
|Latin Averroism||St. Thomas Aquinas|
|Calivinism||Calvin||St. Francis de Sales||
|Monophysitism||451||Alexandria||Pope St. Leo the Great||Condemned at Council of Chalcedon.|
|Iconoclasm||Emperor Leo II||St. John of Damascus|
|Jansenism||Cornelius Jansen||St. Alphonsus de Liguori|
|Free Spirit movement (Quietism)||Meister Eckhart?||Bl. John of Ruysbroeck|
|Modernism||Tyrrell, Loisy, von Hugel||Pope St. Pius X|
|Origenism||St. Methodius of Olympus|
|Indifferentism||Pope Pius XI|
|Catharism||12th to 14th||[from Greek: καθαροί, katharoi, "the pure" Pope Innocent III], St. Dominic.||The name is from the Greek, καθαροί, katharoi, "the pure," so we could call this "Catholic Puritanism," although the theology of Catharism is quite different from that of the Puritans. The Cathars were Gnostics and Dualists, much like the Manichaeans. The Albigensians were a group of Cathars in the south of France.